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Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur

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In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.
In1 the month of Ramzan of the year 899 (June 1494) and Haidarain the twelfth year of my age,2 I became ruler3 in the country of foah I(5- ' Farghana.
(a. Description of Farghana.)
Farghana is situated in the fifth climate4 and at the limit of settled habitation. On the east it has Kashghar; on the west, Samarkand; on the south, the mountains of the Badakhshan border; on the north, though in former times there must have been towns such as Almallgh, Almatu and
1  The manuscripts relied on for revising the first section of the Memoirs, [i.e. 899 to 908 ah. 1494 to 1502 ad.) are the Elphinstone and the Haidarabad Codices. To variants from them occurring in Dr. Kehr's own transcript no authority can be allowed because throughout this section, his texi appears to be a compilation and in parts a retranslation from one or other of the two Persian translations (Wdqi'dt-i-bdburi) of the Babur-nama. Moreover Dr. Ilminsky's imprnt of Kehr's text has the further defect in authority that it was helped out from the Memoirs, itself not a direct issue from the Turki original.
Information about the manuscripts of the Babur-nama can be found in the JRASfor 1900, 1902, 1905, 1906, 1907 and 1908.
The foliation marked in the margin of this book is that of the Haidarabad Codex and of its facsimile, published in 190s by the Gibb Memorial Trust.
2  Babur, born on Friday, Feb. 14th. 1483 (Muliarram 6, 888 ah.), succeeded lus father, 'Umar Shaikh who died on June-8th. 1494 (Ramzan 4, 899 ah.).
3  Pid-shah, protecting lord, supreme. It would be an anachronism to translate pddshdh by King or Emperor, previous to 913 ah. (1507 ad.) because until that date it was not part of the style of any limurid, even ruling members pf the house being styled Mirza. Up to 1507 therefore Babur's correct style 18 Babur Mirza. (C/. f. 215 and note.)
4  See Aytn-i-akbarl, Jarrett, p. 44.
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