clans. The Koh-i-jQd runs for 14 miles along the Bhlra country, taking off from those Kashmir mountains that are one with Hindu-kush, and it draws out to the south-west as far as the foot of Dln-kot on the Sind-river.1 On one half of it are the Jud, the Janjuha on the other. People call it Koh-i-jud through connecting it with the Jud tribe.2 The principal headman gets the title of Ral; others, his younger brothers and sons, are styled Malik. The Janjuha headmen are maternal uncles of Langar Khan. The ruler of the people and horde near the Suhan-water was named Malik Hast. The name originally was Asad but as Hindustanis sometimes drop a vowel e.g. they say khabr for khabar (news), they had said Asd for Asad, and this went on to Hast.
Langar Khan was sent off to Malik Hast at once when we dismounted. He galloped off, made Malik Hast hopeful of our favour and kindness, and at the Bed-time Prayer, returned with him. Malik Hast brought an offering of a horse in mail and waited on me. He may have been 22 or 23 years old.3
The various flocks and herds belonging to the country-people were close round our camp. As it was always in my heart to possess Hindustan, and as these several countries, Bhlra, Khush-ab, Chln-ab and Chlnlut 4 had once been held by the Turk, I pictured them as my own and was resolved to get them into my hands, whether peacefully or by force. For these reasons it being imperative to treat these hillmen well, this following order was given : " Do no hurt or harm to the flocks and herds of these people, nor even to their cotton-ends and broken needles! "
' It is somewhat difficult not to forget that a man who, like Babur, records so many observations of geographical position, had no guidance from Surveys, Gazetteers and Books of Travel. Most of his records are those of personal observation.
a In this sentence Mr. Erskine read a reference to the Musalman Ararat, the Koh-ijud on the left bank of the Tigris. What I have set down translates the Turki words but, taking account of Babur's eye for the double use of a word, and Erskine's careful work, done too in India, the Turki may imply reference to the Ararat-like summit of Sakeswar.
3 Here Dr. Leyden's version finally ends (Erskine).
4 Bhira, as has been noted, is on the Jehlam ; Khush-abis 40 m. lower down the same river ; Chlnlut (ChTnl-wat ?) is 50 miles south of Bhlra ; Chin-ab (China-water ?) seems the name of a tract only and not of a residential centre ; it will be in the Bar of Kipling's border-thief. Concerning Chlnlut see D. G. Barkley's letter, JRAS 1899 p. 132.