A. THE SITE AND DISAPPEARANCE OF OLD AKHSI.
Some modern writers, amongst whom are Dr. Schuyler, General Nalivkine and Mr. Pumpelly, have inferred from the Babur-nama account of Akhsi, (in its translations ?) that the landslip through which Babur's father died and the disappearance of old Akhsi were brought about by erosion. Seen by the light of modern information, this erosion theory does not seem to cover the whole ground and some other cause seems necessary in explanation of both events.
For convenience of reference, the Babur-nama passages required, are quoted here, with their translations.
Hai. MS. f. 46." Saihun darya-sl qiirghani astidin dqdr. Qurghdni balandjar austidd wdqi' buliib tur. Khandaqi-nlng aurunigha 'umiqjdrldr dur. 'Umar Shaikh M. him muni pay-takht qildi, bir iki martaba tdshrdq-din yana jarldr sdldi.
Of this the translations are as follows :
(a) Pers. trans. (I.O. 217, f. 36): Daryd-i Saihun az pdyhd qila'-i o mirezad u qila'-i 0 bar jar balandi wdqi' shuda ba jay hhandaq jarha-i 'umiq uftdda. ' U. Sh. M. kah dnrd pay-takht sdkhta, yak du martaba az birun ham bdz jarhd anddkht.
(b) Erskine (p. 5, translating from the Persian) : ' The river Saihun flows under the walls of the castle. The castle is situated on a high precipice, and the steep ravines around serve instead of a moat. When U. Sh. M. made it his capital he, in one or two instances, scarped the ravines outside the fort.'
(c) De Courteille (i, 8, translating from Ilminsky's imprint, p. 6) : ' Le Seihoun coule au pied de la fortresse qui se dresse sur le sommet d'un ravin, dont les profondeurs lui tiennent lieu d'un fosse. 'U. Sh. M. a l'epoque oii il en avait fait son capitale, avait augmente a une ou deux reprises, les escarpements qui la ceignent naturellement.'
Concerning 'Umar Shaikh's death, the words needed are
Mazkur buliib aidi kim Akhsi qiirghani buland jar austida wdqi' bulub'tur. 'Imdratlar jar ydqusidd alrdi. . . . Mirzd jar din kabutar u