varieties from Africa are called Heera Bol (true myrrh) and Bissa Bol
(an inferior variety). Arabian myrrh is obtained to the east of Aden
(see Hanbury and Flückiger, Pharmacographia ; Watt, Commercial Products, 401).
> The fruit of Cassia fistula, L. (Watt, 287).
Mr. Longworth Dames, with much probability, identifies this with
Persian asbatân or isbatàn, seeds of the wild rue, still used as bazar
medicine in the Panjäb (Stewart, Punjab Plants, Lahore, 1869, p. 381).
5 The fruit of Pimpinella anisum, L., cultivated in India (Watt, 887).
4 Costus or kostus, the root of Aucklandia costus.
' Possibly kundur, i. e. frankincense, obtained from Boswellia flori-bunda carterii, but that has already been enumerated.
* For Anzarût, a gum-resin once known to Europeans as a drug under the name sarcocolla. According to Ainslie (Materia Medica, vol.
i, p. 381) it is derived from Penœa mucronata, Linn., which yields it
by spontaneous exudation ; it is a native of Africa. It was used by the
Arabs for healing wounds, and by Mesue it was believed to have
cathartic properties. According to Dymock's Vegetable Materia Medica, 2nd ed., Bombay 1885, it is still largely used by the natives of Western India. Sir H. Yule made the two last identifications.
' Socotrine aloes, prepared from the juice of Aloe perryi, Linn. (Watt, 59), see Barbosa, ed. Dames, vol. i, 1918, p. 61.
Liquorice, glycyrrhiza (Watt, Economic Diet., iii. 512).
• Possibly for bish, Sanskrit visha, i. e. poison, Aconite root (Watt, Commercial Products, 20 ff.).
Bois d'aloes. This is the Lignum Aloes of Latin writers and the
Aloes-wood of the Bible, quite distinct from the modern aloes, being
the inside of the trunk of Aquilana ovata and A. Agallochum, which
contain a fragrant resinous substance of dark colour (Watt, 72 ff.). It
was formerly generally used both for incense and for medicinal
purposes, but is now only esteemed in the East. From the Portuguese