THE DIAMOND MINES OF BORNEO 361
yet they have not been proved to be of any very great promise.
connexion with the subject of Borneo diamonds, mention is frequently
made of a supposed diamond in the possession of the Raja of Mâtan. Its
great size, 367 carats, and its reputed value, £269,378, as estimated
by Crawfurd, have for many years caused it to be an object of Dutch
cupidity, and many stories are told of the efforts made by them to
induce the Râjâ to part with it. It is stated that early in the century
the Raja was offered 150,000 dollars, two large war brigs fully
equipped, besides other war material, in exchange for the diamond ; but
from superstitious or other reasons he refused to part with this emblem
of royalty, and it has never been cut. Hugh Low states that the real
diamond was not shown to visitors, but that a rock crystal was kept for
the purpose. Dr. Posewitz, however, records that in 1868 the so-called
diamond was itself definitely proved to be merely a piece of rock
crystal, thus proving the accuracy of von Gaffron's previous assertion
that it could be scratched by corundum, and had a specific gravity of
only 2-63 (namely, that of quartz).
diamonds weighing up to 70 and even 80 carats have been found in
Borneo, for many years past stones of even 4 or 5 carats have been but
rarely met with.
The Ruby Mines of Upper Burma and the Sapphire Washings of Ceylon.
principal ruby mines of Burma are situated in three valleys, which are
known by the names of their chief villages respectively, namely Mogok
(or Mogout), Kathé, and Kyatpyen.1 The elevated tract
including these valleys is situated at a distance of about 90 miles
NNW. from Mandalay, and is at elevations of from 4,000 to 5,500 feet
above the sea. The mountains surrounding the Mogok valley culminate in
the peaks of Chenedoung, 7,362 feet, and Toungee, 7,775 feet. The ruby
tract, as now defined by the most recent scientific examination,
occupies an area of 66 square miles, but mining is at present limited
to an area of about 45 square miles. The region is described as being
very beautiful, and presenting a thriving appearance ; but the climate
is somewhat malarious, and Europeans, although the country
1 For a full account of the Ruby Mines District see Sir J. G. Scott, J. P. Hardiman, Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States, Rangoon, 1901, part i, vol. ii, 213 ff. ; part ii, vol. iii, 3 ff. ; Imperial Gazetteer, xxi. 326 fi.