in practice they pulled up the skip carrying this load from the
iooo-foot level in from 30 to 35 seconds. Flat ropes were used, at
first, on the reels, but when the shaft was sunk some hundreds of feet
deeper, round ropes were substituted by the adoption of the "Whiting
system," first used by Mr. S. B. Whiting, general manager of the
Calumet and Hecla Copper Company of Michigan. The dimensions and
description of the engines are given in Appendix II.