and the cloth is rough, even the very small particles of gold adhere to it ;
these cloths are likewise washed in a tub with water.
" stream carries mud with it. This kind of earth is called urium, hence these ditches are
" laid out to carry the water over beds of pebbles to avoid this urium. When they have
" reached the head of the fall, at the top of the mountain, reservoirs are excavated a couple
" of hundred feet long and wide, and about ten feet deep. In these reservoirs there are
" generally five gates left, about three feet square, so that when the reservoir is full, the gates
" are opened, and the torrent bursts forth with such violence that the rocks are hurled along.
" When they have reached the plain there is yet more labour. Trenches called agogae are
" dug for the flow of the water. The bottoms of these are spread at regular intervals with ulex
" to catch the gold. This ulex is similar to rosemary, rough and prickly. The sides, too,
" are closed in with planks and are suspended when crossing precipitous spots. The earth
" is carried to the sea and thus the shattered mountain is washed away and scattered ; and
" this deposition of the earth in the sea has extended the shore of Spain. . . . The gold
" procured from arrugiae does not require to be melted, but is already pure gold. It is found
" in lumps, in shafts as well, sometimes even exceeding ten librae in weight. These lumps
" are called palagae and palacurnae, while the small grains are called baluce. The Ulex is
" dried and burnt and the ashes are washed on a bed of grassy turf in order that the gold
" may settle thereon."