is found in igneous and metamorphic rocks of various kinds and in veins
of tin ore, and also in gem gravels in Ceylon. It occurs in
mica-schists, marble and pegmatites. The gem varieties occur in
pegmatites, and are associated with quartz, beryl, apatite, topaz and
fluorite. Tourmaline also occurs in numerous places. The island of Elba
is famous for many coloured and zoned tourmalines. The first stones
used in Europe were from Ceylon. Other localities are India, Burma,
Siberia and Brazil. There are also a few localities in the U.S.A. Most
of the occurrences of tourmaline in India are black and non-precious.
Large tourmaline crystals occur in the Bihar mica belt both in the
pegmatite and the schists. Tourmaline is found in Burma in Karenni,
Mongmit, rubellite in the Ruby Mines and Mong Long in Northern Shan
States recorded by Barrington Brown and Judd. In India the gem variety
occurs at Padar in Kashmir, and in some places in Nepal. In Burma red
and black tourmaline are found as water-worn pebbles in the sands of
the Nampai valley, Dear Namseka village, and the material mined used to
be sent to China.
Chapter XIX ZIRCON
was known from ancient times in India as 'Gomeda' and was also divided
into four classes like the diamond. It comes next to diamond in
brilliancy and fire«, and ought to be a popular stone, but it is not
even well known. There are many anomalies of the mineral which remain
yet unsolved. It is known as 'Gomeda' among the Hindus and as hyacinth
or jacinth among the Greeks.