that belong to the genus of stones are strung together with it. Besides,
the species used for decoration purpose belong to the mineral kingdom.
Also the pearl and the shell are of the same genus and the shell, etc., are
denoted by khazaf (gravel). The word, khazaf, is actually used for an inferior kind of stone. Abu Nuwas says:
O pearl, in which shines the redness of pure gold
Crowned with pearls and coral-stones as if the rose is surrounded by
the red anemone.
It appears from Abu Nuwas' verses that the white pearl has been threaded between two red stones, i.e., the ruby and the coral, if this is so, such
threading would be defective, if, on the other hand, the poet means that
the smaller pearls have been threaded in between the larger ones, and the
ruby stones have been placed here and there to achieve proper spacing,
so that their lustre reflects the reddishness of the ruby, we shall have
derived a better meaning. Dhual-Rummah says:
As if the threads of coral-stones are hanging from the neck of a
There is no thread for coral stones, let alone the smaller ones. The coral
stone can be bored and in that case it looks as if it has been tied by a
thread. At times it is not even bored, but fitted to a gold or silver frame.
This verse by Akhtal testifies to the fact that marjan is lulu, not bussad:
As if the drops are coral stones when they fall upon its back and
We should now discuss the sea which is the repository for the pearl and
the coral stone and we shall have made our purpose clearer.
THE SEA AND THE RIVER
Lexicographers say about the sea that it is a mighty large volume of
water that does not flow. 'AK bin 'Isa has mentioned only the volume.
He writes: "The people of Arabia call the salsuginous and sweet waters
bahr if both are over-flowing in volume." God has said ruarj al-bahraytt,
i.e., sweet and brackish waters. Hassan bin Thabit says:
My tongue is like a sabre free from any blemish, and buckets do not
make my bahr sea) turbid.
Now buckets are thrown into wells, not the sea but use of word, bahr,
here is more appropriate. Abu Hanifah Dinawari has made magnitude to
be the basic concept and defining the volume of water, says: "The seas
of the land are extensive, and the singular is bahr.''
Poet Kuthayyar describes 'Flood' as under:
It leaves the arak trees knocked down,
fallen and blue, due to the oppressive blows of the flooding waters.
He(?) said: the rain water when fresh is clear but when it settles down it