pleasing that none of the stones resembling it displays such a beautiful colour.
Its mines are in Tuthbank. It is called Tuthbank as there are many
white mulberry trees there. Here is found a variety of lapis lazuli which
in softness and brittleness is like the leek. It has the greenness of the pistachio. We believe it to be malachite, but, since on melting it releases ten
dirhams of silver, possibly this is not so, as jewellers say that malachite,
on melting, gives copper, not silver.
It is God Who prospers and assists.
According to jewellers, it is called dahnaj Faridi in 'Iraq, Varidi in
Nishapur, Wanjuyih in Herat, and Tutiya in Hindiya, as the people of
India believe it to be a kind of tutiya.
Hamzah says it is dahanah and is a variety of turquoise. Al-Kindi
says that a mine of malachite is found among those of copper in the
caves of mountains of Kirman. When melted in a crucible, it gives copper.
It is said that it is used by alchemists. If this is so, this explains why
it is soft and greasy, and does not alter on heating. It has (patterns) like
the eyes and green moons.
Al-Kindi says that, during the days of prosperity of Iran, large pieces
of the mineral were found, and utensils used to be made from them.
Whatever was in the mine gradually became depleted and nothing was
One of its varieties is the Sigzi. It is rated less than the Kirmanian
kind, and inferior to both is the kind which is associated with Arabia.
One variety of it is found in a cave in the desert of Banu Salim. if put
into oil, it becomes very green. Nasr writes:
It is a hard mineral stone comprising three kinds. The Marwani (so
called after the discoverer of the mine) kind is found in the copper
mines of the mountain of Kirman. It is variegated in colour and has
veins having eyes and half moons. Rubbed with oil, it gives the
glossiness of copper. The Khusraws of Persia had their dinner sets
and saucers made from it. The mine is now totally exhausted and all
that remains is like red putrid mud. The second kind, which is more
recent, comes out of a copper mine and is closer to the Marwani
kind. The third kind comes from Arabia and is obtained from the
way leading to Makka in Harra' Banu Salim. Its greenness becomes
glossy with oil, and, if left in the oil for long periods, becomes
darkish. It is soft when freshly mined, but keeps on gradually hardening. If placed in sesame oil, its glossiness is enhanced. It is rubbed