The Kitab al-Jamahir is not a book devoted to the therapeutic
aspect of stones. Nevertheless, in a small way, it might be regarded as
an extension of al- Say donah in which the therapeutic aspects of some
of" the gems, stones, and minerals described in al-Jamahir have been
stated. Thus much of the material found in al-Jamahir is present in
One of the most prominent features of stones and minerals in the
Islamic system of medicine is that they are converted into forms that
can be absorbed by the body or in other words in compounded forms.
Even the administration of mumya'i (asphaltum or bitumen) alone is
Islamic medicine classifies drugs according to their temperament
[mizaj), therapeutic action (khawas) and usage [isti'mal).
We give below an account of the stones, minerals, deposits and
concretions described in al-Jamahir.
Yaqut (Ruby, Cornelian, Jacinth)
Temperament: Temperate in heat and coldness and dry in the
Therapeutic Action: Exhilarant, tranquillizing, resolvent, styptic;
useful in agitation, plague and epilepsy. (Makhzan al-Adawiyyah).
Usage: It is employed in polypharmaceuticals, e.g., Ma'jun Murraweh-ul-Arwah, Muffareh Azam, Muffareh Dilkusha, Muffareh Kabir,
Muffareh Yaquti Mo'tadil, Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshadwala,
Khamira Abresham Ood Mastagiwala, Kushta Yaquti, Jawahir Mohra
(Hamdard Pharmacopoeia of Eastern Medicine; Dihli hay Sahih
Ibn Sina in his Canon has recommended powders based on the
ruby. In the works Ilaj al-Amrad, Miftah al-Khazain and Qarabadin-eDhakai several preparations based on this precious stone have been
Temperament: Moderate in heat and coldness; dry in the second
Therapeutic Action: Cardiac and nervine tonic; ocular tonic; used in
haemorrhages and atrabilious ailments (Makhzan al-Adawiyyah).