Usage: Almost identical with ruby (llaj al-Amrad).
Temperament: Cold (4th degree) and dry (4th degree).
Therapeutic Action: Detersive and powerful alternative.
Exhilarant; increases vital energy; cardiace tonic, anti-hallucinogenic;
useful in epilepsy, agitation, plague, and densified blood.
Usage: Prescribed only in polypharmaceuticals, e.g., Kushtahs
(calcined drugs and powders) like Kushta-i-Almas or lila like Tila-iAtmas (Miftah al-Khazain, Hamdard Pharmacopoeia of Eastern
Sunbadaj (Smyris, Emery)
'Temperament: Cold and dry in the second degree.
'Therapeutic Action: Useful for teeth; resolvent for inflammation,
and emollient in itching, dermal irritations, burning sensations in
muscles, and piles; stypic and of utility in old sores (Makhzan alAdawiyyah). Resolvent for inflammation of the spleen; anti-epileptic:
anodyne for pain in the breat-bone and testes; of use in cardiac ailments (I'uhfat aTMominin).
Usage: As poultice (dhimad), as resolvent, anodyne in burning
sensation and in piles (Makhzan al-Adawiyyah) Liniment for flaccid
breasts (Al-Ab)iiyah an Haqaiq al-Adawiyyah).
Temperament: Cold and dry.
'Therapeutic Action: Exhilarant, tonic, dispels fear, agitation and
hallucination, and terror due to atrabile and deleterious liquid in the
gall-bladder, weakness of the liver and kidney; lithontriptic (Makhzan
Usage: Employed in digestive stomachics, confections, calces and
theriacs (Qarabadin-e-Kabir, llaj al-Afnrad, Mijtah al-Khazain and
'Temperament: Emerald varieties are cold in the second and dry in
the third degree.
Therapeutic Action: Exhilarant, cardiac and cephalic tonic, useful
in the ailments of the liver and stomach, epilepsy, agitation and pleurisy
Usage: Employed in fermented medicines, calces, and other polypharmaceuticals (Dihli kay Sahih Murakkabat; Qarabadin-e-Dhakai).