hundred and twenty thousand roubles. Two other royal crowns
are embellished with diamonds, numbering from eight to nine
hundred each. The crown of Vladimir, used at the coronation
of the heir to the throne, brought from Constantinople in the
year n 16, as a gift from the Emperor Alexis Comnenus,
is ornamented, says Mr. Hamlin, with emeralds, rubies, and
pearls ; while his sceptre displays two hundred and sixty-eight
diamonds, three hundred and sixty rubies, and fifteen emeralds.
In this royal repository — the Kremlin — are safely guarded a
number of other crowns, an orb, several thrones, one of them
literally covered with gems, among which rubies and turquoises
are conspicuous, and a second appearing like a glowing mass of
diamonds, arms and armor, with all kinds of horse trappings,
profusely decorated with precious stones.
Many of the imperial jewels are deposited in the Winter
Palace, at the capital, comprising the crowns of the later sovereigns of the Empire, a beautiful diamond necklace, and other
regalia. The crowns of the emperor and the empress are considered among the most magnificent diadems that ever adorned
the brow of any potentate. The Hermitage, connected with
this palace, constructed by Catherine II., is a vast treasury of
Tare and costly gems. This munificent princess not only
poured out with a liberal hand these valuable gifts upon
-churches, palaces, and public institutions, but she gave to her
favorite courtiers immense fortunes in this kind of wealth, comprising jewels of curious and unique style and workmanship.
Turkish Regalia. — The Ottoman Empire is supposed to be
exceedingly opulent in crown jewels and precious stones, collected in the imperial treasury at Constantinople ; but less is
known of them than of those belonging to any other European
court, owing to the more exclusive policy of the government.
This vast repository comprises a large part of the valuable col-