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Ch. 6: Cutting

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PRECIOUS STONES              61
finished stone as perfect and beautiful as possible. Machinery to increase the accuracy of the facets was perfected in his shop, and he taught and insisted on mathematical exactitude. His work was appreciated. The public, seeing its superiority, began to insist upon having stones cut and proportioned after his method, and European cutters were gradually obliged to conform more and more to it. The result is that the propor­tions of the American brilliant have been generally adopted, though the finest and most exact cutting is still done in the United States.
The " brilliant"-cut diamond resembles two cones united at their bases, the upper one truncated or cut off a short dis­tance from the base, and the lower one having the apex only cut off. The flat top is called the " table." The rim where the cones unite is the " girdle." " Culet" is the name given to the small flat facet at the bottom, " pavilion" or " collet-side" to the entire lower portion from the girdle to the culet, and "bizel" to the space between the table and the girdle. It will be seen by referring to the drawings on Plate XII. that the proportions have been changed somewhat in the last few years. One-third of the depth of the stone above the girdle was considered best. It is less now, and the change gives a sharper brilliancy to the stone and less weight.
The brilliant-cut has thirty-two facets above the girdle and twenty-four below; in all, fifty-six, exclusive of the table and culet. To these are sometimes added eight extra facets around the culet. The top facets consist of eight triangular " star" facets, called top corner facets, which abut on the table, eight main facets, whose points reach from girdle to table, and sixteen split triangular facets, or " lower corner facets," lying between the points of the main facets, with their bases forming the edge of the girdle. Below the girdle are sixteen split triangular or " upper corner on bottom" facets, to match those on top, with eight main facets reaching below to the culet.
Ch. 6: Cutting Page of 237 Ch. 6: Cutting
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