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XIII
TOURMALINE
Since tourmaline was discovered in Maine and brought into notice by Dr. Augustus C. Hamlin, of Bangor, it has grown rapidly in favor. It was discovered in 1820 by Elijah L. Hamlin and Ezekiel Holmes, on Mount Mica, at Paris, Maine. Since then many very beautiful crystals have been found in that State.
Tourmaline is remarkable for the number and variety of the elements of which it is composed, and also for the varia­tions in their proportions in different specimens. In his book on " Gems and Precious Stones of North America," Mr. George F. Kunz gives a table of the analysis of twenty-seven specimens, of which not only are no two alike in composi­tion, but only a few contain the same proportion of any one of the thirteen constituents.
It is one of the most dichroic stones known, and in the crystal frequently appears of a different color as it is viewed from the end or side faces. It also produces a differ­ent colored gem as it is cut with or across the prism. Crys­tals have been found light blue at one end shading to deep blue and blue-black at the other; green outside and pink within; green and pink at opposite ends; brown and yellow, etc. The colors are seldom vivid, though some Siberians are a bright rich red, and many of those from Maine are a brilliant green.
It is found in Maine, Massachusetts, and New York States, Brazil, Burmah, Ceylon, Siberia, the Urals, and the Isle of Elba.
Brazil and Ceylon tourmalines are usually yellowish green, and are found in the river-beds. The Siberian are 110