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Ch. 2: Gems in Ceylon

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27.    Quartz (crystalline) with plumbago from Diatura.
28.    Hornblende rock from Madola, Saffragam.
29.    Mica found in considerable quantity in pockets in the decomposed gneiss.
30.    Hornblende rock from Wattegama, Matale Railway.
31.    Decomposed gneiss from a depth of 20 feet from Labugama. The felspar of our rocks, when subjected to action of water, soon decomposes.
32.    Kaolin from Maturata, also found largely at Nuwara Eliya. It makes a very fair procelain.
33.    Gneiss decomposed from Pallekande. The green colouris due to epidote and chlorite.
34.    Iron pyrites from Nambapana.
35.    Smoky quartz from Medakanda, Balangoda.
36.    Calcareous Tufa (Panugal of the Sinhalese). This is a deposit of carbonate of lime from the hot springs of Bintenna. It is burnt by the natives of the district and used to chew with their betel.
37.    Sandstone from Pamunugama, a recent formation occurring on the sea coast from Negombo to Mount Lavinia. The black crystals are magnetic iron. The particles of sand are tied together by calcareous matter.
38.    Sandstone from Pamunugama, another variety.
39.    Gneiss from the top-most rock of Adam's Peak. It is very quartzose and agrees in the main with the common rock with the island. It is upon this that the sacred foot print is placed to which so many thousands of pilgrims resort annually.
40.    Rock crystal from Ratnapura.
Cask III.
41.    Sapphire (crystals) Nil-padiyan.       46.    White Sapphire.
42.    Sapphire, Sudu-nil.                            47.    Ruby, Ratu-keta.
43.    Sapphire, Otu-nil.                              48.    Amethj-st, Oriental.
44.    Sapphire, Nil-Kanti.                          49.    Corundum.
45.    Star Sapphire.                                    50.    Topaz.
Nos. 41 to 49 represent the sapphire family which crystallizes in the hexagonal system. The numerous members of this group are divided according to colour, hardness &c. Thus, when blue it is called sapphire; red, ruby; purple, amethyst; when it lacks transparency and is of dull colour it is known as corundum.
No. 44 is partly blue and partly red.
No. 43 partly blue and white. The Sinhalese can by heating such with lime distribute the colour evenly through the stone, or with greater heat can discharge the colour and so imitate the white sapphire.
No. 45. on account of lamellar structure when cut in convex form shews a star of 6 rays.
No. 48 is the oriental amethyst so-called in order to distinguish it from the quartz amethyst.
Green corundum is known as the oriental emerald and yellow as topaz.
St. Spinel (crystal).
52.    Spinet— a very abundant minerat, crystallizes in the cubic system generally in octahedrons or duod-cahedrons, specific gravity about 3-S while the ruby is 4, and the garnet 3'8.
53.    Garnet (Kurundugal).
54.    Cinnamon stone (Essonite) a kind of garnet.
55.    Garnet.
56.    Tourmaline, Pachcha-toramalli.
57.    Tourmaline, Peni-toramalli.
58.    Tourmaline.
Tourmaline is very abundant, both crystalline and massive. It is of various colours and crystallizes in the hexagonal system.
Ch. 2: Gems in Ceylon Page of 442 Ch. 2: Gems in Ceylon
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