according to Pliny, is so called after the place Sardis, where it was
first discovered. This etymology, however, is merely based upon the
similarity of the words, and is of no more worth than the ludicrous
derivation given by Epiphanius, from its resemblance in colour to a
pickled sardine—an idea though that very naturally suggested itself to
an icthyophagous Byzantine saint. But 2Üñ8éïí, the earliest Greek form
of the word, cannot be derived grammatically from 2ap8ei5 ; its root
is undoubtedly the Persian Sered, " yellowish red," very
slightly altered. The name came with the thing from Persia ; the
Babylonian mine produced the sort first known and most esteemed; hence
the stone is termed by Epiphanius the Babylonian Sard.
Of the modern name, Carnelian, the derivations are numerous, the usual one being assigned from its colour of raw flesh, carneus. Again, it is spelt Cornelian, as if from Corneolus, and equivalent to the German Hornstein, which last signifies the European sort. Lessing, with some plausibility, supposes this form taken from the French Cornaline, to describe its similarity in colour to the cornel cherry.*
The common Carnelian, a semi-transparent quartz co-
* The word Carnelius dates from the Decline, for we find Marbodus using it (xxii.) to denote a different and inferior stone to the Sardius. As he alludes to its colour of raw flesh, he evidently held to the first derivation of the name.