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Ch. 13: Dominion of Canada

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Dr. Gesner mentions finding two small nodules of opal, of a waxy color, at Partridge Island, N. S. Semi-opal has been found at Partridge Island in fine specimens, also at Grand Manan, N. B., and other localities in that vicinity.
Cacholong has been found associated with chalcedony in Nova Scotia on the Bay of Fundy. The hornstone found at Partridge Island admits of a fine polish and is of some use as an ornamental stone.
Jade (nephrite), in the form of archaeological implements, has been found from the Straits of Fuca northward along the en­tire coast of British Columbia and the northern end of Alaska.1 At the latter place it is closely allied with other minerals, such as the new form of pectolite, and is found, with other relics of vari­ous kinds, about shell heaps and old village sites, in graves, or still preserved, although seldom used, by the natives. It is also found as far inland as the second mountain system of the Cordil­lera belts, represented by the Gold, Cariboo, and other ranges, principally among remains from Indian graves, and along the lower portions of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers, within the ter­ritory of the Selish people. It is less common in the interior of the province, which Dr. Dawson accounts for in part by the facts that adzes or adze-like tools had not been so much employed by the Indians of the interior and by those of the coast, who are pre-eminent as dextrous workers in wood and noted for the size and superior construction of their wooden houses and canoes; and that, previous to the introduction of iron tools among the Eskimos and Indians, the use of jade must have been much more frequent, so much so as to preclude the theory of its having been obtained in trade from remote sources. The Indians of the west coast, although they value the jade, have for it no superstitious or sentimental feeling. The finding of two partly worked small boulders of jade on the lower part of the Frazer River, at Lytton and Yale, B.C., respectively, and the discovery of unfinished objects in old Indian graves near Lytton, make it certain that the man­ufacture of adzes had been actually carried on there. A series of specimens, numbering sixty-one in all, have been deposited in
1 On the Occurrence of Jade in British Columbia, by Dr. George M. Dawson. Canadian Record of Science, Vol. 2, No. 6. April, 1887.
Ch. 13: Dominion of Canada Page of 364 Ch. 13: Dominion of Canada
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