HERE are certain ores of iron which are used to a limited extent in jewellery and in the Fine Arts—notably Hœmatite, a
mineral which has been used from time immemorial for intaglios, and
occasionally for the imitation of black 'Pearls. Although of steel-grey
colour when polished,,the streak of the mineral, when scratched, is of
a reddish-brown or cherry-red colour, whence the word Hœmatite, meaning " blood-stone," is derived.
occurrence of Haematite is wide-spread, but the hard variety which is
polished as an ornamental stone, is found chiefly in the Carboniferous
Limestone of Cumberland, especially near Whitehaven. Crystals, when
found have often a highly splendent lustre, and are hence known as "
Specular Iron-ore." Usually, however, the Haematite occurs in reniform
or kidney-shaped masses, whence it is often called "kidney-ore."