HIMALAYA MINE. TOURMALINE.
This mine is situated in the east half of sec. 17, T. 11 S., R. 2 E., San Bernardino meridian, at an altitude of 3,800 feet. The property is about 4-J miles northwest of the Mesa Grande store and on the watershed between San Luis Rey River and Mesa Grande Creek. It had long been known that beautiful colored stones existed on this ridge, but after repeated failures and with no determination of qualitjT or value the locality was brought into notice in 1898 by Mr. Charles Russell Orcutt, who opened it and for a time worked it; afterwards it was operated by Dr. A. E. Heigh way. This led to later development by the Himalaya Company, and the present output is the result. During 1904 about 6 tons of rough tourmaline were shipped to the company's lapidary in New York. Of this quantity about 350 pounds were line nodules and pencils of the very highest grade. Surface or bench digging has been followed exclusively, although a tunnel is being run to tap the ledges at the 150-foot level. Both hanging and foot walls are of hard blue diorite and the ledge is of fine crystallized pegmatite not over 18 inches in width, and dipping from 26° to 33° southwest. In working this ledge pay material has been in sight continuously, and at no time has a barren piece of ground been encountered. The upper pegmatite is usually stained with lithia and manganese, and large masses of lepidolite are associated with tourmalines. The pockets are large and filled with talc and hydrous micas in which the gem ciwstals occur embedded, main* showing peculiar etchings. The ledge has been uncovered for about 700 feet and to an average depth of 15 feet. These open cuts, however, are proving dangerous and will have to be abandoned as soon as the rainy season has soaked the walls on either side. Wood, water, and all natural advantages are of the best, and a good dwelling house, barn, tool houses, and blacksmith shop, a windmill, and water piped to all constitute the improvements. From 4 to 10 men are constantly employed about the mine.
Among the minerals noted wTere orthoclase, albito, lepidolite, amblygonite, small clear pieces of spodumene, muscovite; tourmaline, black, green, blue, deep red, and rose pink; beryl, pink and aquamarine; hornblende and epidotic rocks, spessartite and essonite garnet, large and very transparent quartz crystals, talc and hydrous micas, and a dark-brownish transparent crystal, very dense (specific gravity, 10), and with a hardness of 5j, not yet identified. This mineral is very rare, and only a few pieces have been found.